02 09 2012 Рубрика: общение 37 коммент.

Оригинал J.R.R. Tolkien — «HoME-6: The Return of the Shadow»

Дорогие участники, в связи с тем что многие тексты «Истории Средиземья» до сих пор не переведены, а информация, кроющаяся в них, имеют огромную ценность для толкинистов, мы решили создать тему любительских переводов. Что это значит:
Это значит, что мы создаем две параллельные темы. В одну тему (в эту) мы будем закачивать книгу в оригинале, которая по свойствам Контакта поделится на посты. Во второй теме http://vk.com/topic-8468258_23415092 вы будете делать заявку на перевод определенного поста и в ближайшие сроки выкладывать перевод.

Как материал для переводов мы взяли наиболее малопереведенные (если не сказать абсолютно непереведенные) книги «Истории Средиземья» – черновики ВК, начиная с 6 тома.
Правила таковы:
1) Заявку вы можете делать только на последующий пост – относительно предыдущего, который уже перевели или "заняли".
2) Вы не можете делать повторный перевод предыдущего поста, даже если вы недовольны качеством того перевода. Вы имеете право сказать об этом автору того перевода в личку и с ним согласовывать, чтоб тот редактировал какие-то не устраивающие вас моменты.

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Все вопросы/предложения и тп - сюда http://vkontakte.ru/topic-8468258_23415130 !!! ЗДЕСЬ НЕ ПИСАТЬ !!!

К записи "Оригинал J.R.R. Tolkien — «HoME-6: The Return of the Shadow»" оставлено 37 коммент.

  1. sergej:

    THE FIRST PHASE.
    I.
    A LONG-EXPECTED PARTY.

    The First Version.

    The original written starting-point of The Lord of the Rings — its ‘first
    germ’, as my father scribbled on the text long after — has been preserved:
    a manuscript of five pages entitled A long-expected party. I think that it
    must have been to this (rather than to a second, unfinished, draft that
    soon followed it) that my father referred when on 19 December 1937 he
    wrote to Charles Furth at Allen and Unwin: ‘I have written the first
    chapter of a new story about Hobbits — «A long expected party».’ Only
    three days before he had written to Stanley Unwin:
    » I think it is plain that… a sequel or successor to The Hobbit is called
    for. I promise to give this thought and attention. But I am sure you will
    sympathize when I say that the construction of elaborate and consis-
    tent mythology (and two languages) rather occupies the mind, and the
    Silmarils are in my heart. So that goodness knows what will happen.
    Mr Baggins began as a comic tale among conventional Grimm’s fairy-
    tale dwarves, and got drawn into the edge of it — so that even Sauron
    the terrible peeped over the edge. And what more can hobbits do?
    They can be comic, but their comedy is suburban unless it is set
    against things more elemental. »
    From this it seems plain that on the 16th of December he had not only not
    begun writing, but in all probability had not even given thought to the
    substance of ‘a new story about Hobbits’. Not long before he had parted
    with the manuscript of the third version of The Silmarillion to Allen and
    Unwin; it was unfinished, and he was still deeply immersed in it. In a
    postscript to this letter to Stanley Unwin he acknowledged, in fact, the
    return of The Silmarillion (and other things) later on that day. None-
    theless, he must have begun on the new story there and then.

    When he first put pen to paper he wrote in large letters ‘When M’, but
    he stopped before completing the final stroke of the M and wrote instead
    ‘When Bilbo…’ The text begins in a handsome script, but the writing
    becomes progessively faster and deteriorates at the end into a rapid
    scrawl not at all points legible. There are a good many alterations to the
    manuscript. The text that follows represents the original form as I judge
    it to have been, granting that what is ‘original’ and what is not cannot be
    perfectly distinguished. Some changes can be seen to have been made at
    the moment of writing, and these are taken up into the text; but others

    are characteristic anticipations of the following version, and these are
    ignored. In any case it is highly probable that my father wrote the
    versions of this opening chapter in quick succession. Notes to this
    version follow immediately on the end of the text (p. 17).

  2. sergej:

    A long-expected party (1).

    When Bilbo, son of Bungo of the family of Baggins, [had
    celebrated >] prepared to celebrate his seventieth birthday there
    was for a day or two some talk in the neighbourhood. He had once
    had a little fleeting fame among the people of Hobbiton and
    Bywater — he had disappeared after breakfast one April 30th and
    not reappeared until lunchtime on June 22nd in the following
    year. A very odd proceeding for which he had never given any
    good reason, and of which he wrote a nonsensical account. After
    that he returned to normal ways; and the shaken confidence of the
    district was gradually restored, especially as Bilbo seemed by
    some unexplained method to have become more than comfortably
    off, if not positively wealthy. Indeed it was the magnificence of the
    party rather than the fleeting fame that at first caused the talk -
    after all that other odd business had happened some twenty years
    before and was becoming decently forgotten. The magnificence of
    the preparations for the party, I should say. The field to the south
    of his front door was being covered with pavilions. Invitations
    were being sent out to all the Bagginses and all the Tooks (his
    relatives on his mother’s side), and to the Grubbs (only remotely
    connected); and to the Burroweses, the Boffinses, the Chubbses
    and the Proudfeet: none of whom were connected at all within the
    memory of the local historians — some of them lived on the other
    side of the shire; but they were all, of course, hobbits. Even the
    Sackville-Bagginses, his cousins on his father’s side, were not
    forgotten. There had been a feud between them and Mr Bilbo
    Baggins, as some of you may remember. But so splendid was the
    invitation-card, all written in gold, that they were induced to
    accept; besides, their cousin had been specializing in good food
    for a long time, and his tables had a high reputation even in that
    time and country when food was still what it ought to be and
    abundant enough for all folk to practise on.
    Everyone expected a pleasant feast; though they rather dreaded
    the after-dinner speech of their host. He was liable to drag in bits
    of what he called poetry, and even to allude, after a glass or two, to
    the absurd adventures he said he had had long ago during his
    ridiculous vanishment. They had a eery pleasant feast: indeed an
    engrossing entertainment. The purchase of provisions fell almost
    to zero throughout the whole shire during the ensuing week; but
    as Mr Baggins’ catering had emptied all the stores, cellars and
    warehouses for miles around, that did not matter. Then came the
    speech. Most of the assembled hobbits were now in a tolerant
    mood, and their former fears were forgotten. They were prepared
    to listen to anything, and to cheer at every full stop. But they were
    not prepared to be startled. But they were — completely and
    unprecedentedly startled; some even had indigestion.
    ‘My dear people,’ began Mr Baggins. ‘Hear, hear!’ they replied
    in chorus. ‘My dear Bagginses,’ he went on, standing now on his
    chair, so that the light of the lanterns that illuminated the enor-
    mous pavilion flashed upon the gold buttons of his embroidered
    waistcoat for all to see.

  3. sergej:

    ‘And my dear Tooks, and Grubbs,
    and Chubbs, and Burroweses, and Boffinses, and Proudfoots.’(2)
    ‘Proudfeet’ shouted an elderly hobbit from the back. His name of
    course was Proudfoot, and merited; his feet were large, exception-
    ally furry, and both were on the table. ‘Also my dear Sackville-
    Bagginses that I welcome back at last to Bag-end,’ Bilbo con-
    tinued. ‘Today is my seventieth birthday.’ ‘Hurray hurray and
    many happy returns! ‘ they shouted. That was the sort of stuff they
    liked: short, obvious, uncontroversial.
    ‘I hope you are all enjoying yourselves as much as I am.’
    Deafening cheers, cries of yes (and no), and noises of trumpets
    and whistles. There were a great many junior hobbits present, as
    hobbits were indulgent to their children, especially if there was a
    chance of an extra meal. Hundreds of musical crackers had been
    pulled. Most of them were labelled ‘Made in Dale’. What that
    meant only Bilbo and a few of his Took-nephews knew; but they
    were very marvellous crackers. ‘I have called you all together,’
    Bilbo went on when the last cheer died away, and something in his
    voice made a few of the Tooks prick up their ears. ‘First of all to
    tell you that I am immensely fond of you, and that seventy years is
    too short a time to live among such excellent and charming hobbits’
    — ‘hear hear!»I don’t know half of you half as well as I should like,
    and less than half of you half as well as you deserve.’ No cheers, a few
    claps — most of them were trying to work it out. ‘Secondly to
    celebrate my birthday and the twentieth year of my return’ — an
    uncomfortable rustle. ‘Lastly to make an Announcement.’ He said
    this very loud and everybody sat up who could. ‘Goodbye! I am
    going away after dinner. Also I am going to get married.’

    He sat down. The silence was flabbergastation. It was broken
    only by Mr Proudfoot, who kicked over the table; Mrs Proudfoot
    choked in the middle of a drink.

  4. sergej:

    That’s that. It merely serves to explain that Bilbo Baggins got
    married and had many children, because I am going to tell you a
    story about one of his descendants, and if you had only read his
    memoirs up to the date of Balin’s visit — ten years at least before
    this birthday party — you might have been puzzled.(3)
    As a matter of fact Bilbo Baggins disappeared silently and
    unnoticed — the ring was in his hand even while he made his speech
    — in the middle of the confused outburst of talk that followed the
    flabbergasted silence. He was never seen in Hobbiton again.
    When the carriages came for the guests there was no one to say
    good-bye to. The carriages rolled away, one after another, filled
    with full but oddly unsatisfied hobbits. Gardeners came (by
    appointment) and cleared away in wheelbarrows those that had
    inadvertently remained. Night settled down and passed. The sun
    rose. People came to clear away the pavilions and the tables and
    the chairs and the lanterns and the flowering trees in boxes, and
    the spoons and knives and plates and forks, and crumbs, and the
    uneaten food — a very small parcel. Lots of other people came too.
    Bagginses and Sackville-Bagginses and Tooks, and people with
    even less business. By the middle of the morning (when even the
    best-fed were out and about again) there was quite a crowd at
    Bag-end, uninvited but not unexpected. ENTER was painted on a
    large white board outside the great front-door. The door was
    open. On everything inside there was a label tied. ‘For Mungo
    Took, with love from Bilbo’; ‘For Semolina Baggins, with love
    from her nephew’, on a waste-paper basket — she had written him a
    deal of letters (mostly of good advice). ‘For Caramella Took, with
    kind remembrances from her uncle’, on a clock in the hall.
    Though unpunctual she had been a niece he rather liked, until
    coming late one day to tea she had declared his clock was fast.
    Bilbo’s clocks were never either slow or fast, and he did not forget
    it. ‘For Obo Took- Took, from his great-nephew’, on a feather
    bed; Obo was seldom awake before i a noon or after tea, and
    snored. ‘For Gorboduc Grubb with best wishes from B. Baggins’
    -on a gold fountain-pen; he never answered letters. ‘For Angelica’s
    use’ on a mirror — she was a young Baggins and thought herself
    very comely.(4) ‘For Inigo Grubb-Took’, on a complete dinner-
    service — he was the greediest hobbit known to history. ‘For
    Amalda Sackville-Baggins as a present’, on a case of silver spoons.
    She was the wife of Bilbo’s cousin, the one he had discovered years
    ago on his return measuring his dining-room (you may remember
    his suspicions about disappearing spoons: anyway neither he nor
    Amalda had forgotten).(5)
    Of course there were a thousand and one things in Bilbo’s
    house, and all had labels- most of them with some point (which
    sank in after a time). The whole house-furniture was disposed of,
    but not a penny piece of money, nor a brass ring of jewelry, was to
    be found. Amalda was the only Sackville-Baggins remembered
    with a label — but then there was a notice in the hall saying that Mr
    Bilbo Baggins made over the desirable property or dwelling-hole
    known as Bag-end Underhill together with all lands thereto
    belonging or annexed to Sago Sackville-Baggins and his wife
    Amalda for them to have hold possess occupy or otherwise dispose
    of at their pleasure and discretion as from September 22nd next.

  5. sergej:

    It was then September 21st (Bilbo’s birthday being on the 20th of
    that pleasant month). So the Sackville-Bagginses did live in Bag-
    end after all — though they had had to wait some twenty years. And
    they had a great deal of difficulty too getting all the labelled stuff
    out — labels got torn and mixed, and people tried to do swaps in the
    hall, and some tried to make off with stuff that was [not] being
    carefully watched; and various prying folk began knocking holes
    in walls and burrowing in cellars before they could be ejected.
    They were still worrying about the money and the jewelry. How
    Bilbo would have laughed. Indeed he was — he had foreseen how it
    would all fall out, and was enjoying the joke quite privately.
    There, I suppose it has become all too plain. The fact is, in spite
    of his after-dinner speech, he had grown suddenly very tired of
    them all. The Tookishness (not of course that all Tooks ever had
    much of this wayward quality) had quite suddenly and uncom-
    fortably come to life again. Also another secret — after he had
    blowed his last fifty ducats on the party he had not got any money
    or jewelry left, except the ring, and the gold buttons on his
    waistcoat. He had spent it all in twenty years (even the proceeds of
    his beautiful…. which he had sold a few years back).(6)
    Then how could he get married? He was not going to just then -
    he merely said ‘I am going to get married’. I cannot quite say why.
    It came suddenly into his head. Also he thought it was an event
    that might occur in the future — if he travelled again amongst other
    folk, or found a more rare and more beautiful race of hobbits
    somewhere. Also it was a kind of explanation. Hobbits had a
    curious habit in their weddings. They kept it (always officially and
    very often actually) a dead secret for years who they were going to
    marry, even when they knew. Then they suddenly went and got
    married and went off without an address for a week or two (or even
    longer). When Bilbo had disappeared this is what at first his
    neighbours thought. ‘He has gone and got married. Now who can
    it be? — no one else has disappeared, as far as we know.’ Even after
    a year they- would have been less surprised if he had come back
    with a wife. For a long while some folk thought he was keeping one
    in hiding, and quite a legend about the poor Mrs Bilbo who was
    too ugly to be seen grew up for a while.
    So now Bilbo said before he disappeared: ‘I am going to get
    married.’ He thought that that — together with all the fuss about
    the house (or hole) and furniture — would keep them all busy and
    satisfied for a long while, so that no one would bother to hunt for
    him for a bit. And he was right — or nearly right. For no one ever
    bothered to hunt for him at all. They decided he had gone mad,
    and run off till he met a pool or a river or a steep fall, and there was
    one Baggins the less. Most of them, that is. He was deeply
    regretted by a few of his younger friends of course (… Angelica
    and Sar……). But he had not said good-bye to all of them — 0
    no. That is easily explained.

  6. sergej:

    NOTES.

    1. The title was written in subsequently, but no doubt before the
    chapter was finished, since my father referred to it by this title in his
    letter of 19 December 1937 (p. 11).
    2. After ‘Burroweses’ followed ‘and Ogdens’, but this was struck out -
    almost certainly at the time of writing. ‘Proudfoots’ was first written
    ‘Proudfeet’, as earlier in the chapter, but as the next sentence shows it
    was changed in the act of writing.
    3. The reference is to the conclusion of The Hobbit, when Gandalf and
    Balin called at Bag End ‘some years afterwards’.
    4. At this point a present to Inigo Baggins of a case of hairbrushes was
    mentioned, but struck out, evidently at the time of writing, since the
    present to another Inigo (Grubb-Took) immediately follows.
    5. Various changes were made to the names and other details in this
    passage, not all of which were taken up in the third version (the
    second ends before this point). Mungo Took’s gift (an umbrella) was
    specified; and Caramella Took was changed from niece to cousin.
    Gorboduc Grubb became Orlando Grubb. Pencilled proposals for
    the name of Mrs Sackville-Baggins, replacing Amalda, are Lonicera
    (Honeysuckle) and Griselda, and her husband Sago (named in the
    next paragraph of the text) became Cosmo.
    6. Cf. the end of The Hobbit: ‘His gold and silver was mostly [after-
    wards changed to largely] spent in presents, both useful and extrava-
    gant’. The illegible word here might possibly be arms, but it does not
    look like it, and cf. the same passage in The Hobbit: ‘His coat of mail
    was arranged on a stand in the hall (until he lent it to a Museum).’

    *
    Writing of this draft in his Biography, Humphrey Carpenter says

    (p. 185):
    «The reason for his disappearance, as given in this first draft, is that
    Bilbo ‘had not got any money or jewels left’ and was going off in search
    of more dragon-gold. At this point the first version of the opening
    chapter breaks off, unfinished. «

    But it may be argued that it was in fact finished: for the next completed
    draft of the chapter (the third — the second seems certainly unfinished,
    and breaks off at a much earlier point) ends only a very little further on in
    the narrative (p. 34), and shortly before the end has:
    But not all of them had said good-bye to him. That is easily explained,
    and soon will be.
    And the explanation is not given, but reserved for the next chapter. Nor
    is it made so explicit in the first draft that Bilbo was ‘going off in search of
    more dragon-gold’. That lack of money was a reason for leaving his home
    is certainly the case, but a sudden Tookish disgust with hobbit dulness
    and conventionality is also emphasized; and in fact there is not so much
    as a hint of what Bilbo was planning to do. It may well be that on 19
    December 1937 my father had no idea.

  7. sergej:

    The rapidly-written conclusion
    of the text strongly suggests uncertain direction (and indeed he had said
    earlier in the chapter that the story was going to be about one of Bilbo’s
    descendants).
    But while there is no sign of Gandalf, most of the essentials and many
    of the details of the actual party as it is described in The Fellowship of the
    Ring (FR) emerge right at the beginning, and even some phrases
    remained. The Chubbs (or Chubbses, p. 13), the Boffinses, and the
    Proudfoots now appear — the families named Burrowes (Burrows in FR)
    and Grubb had been mentioned at the end of The Hobbit, in the names of
    the auctioneers at the sale of Bag End; and the hobbits’ land is for the first
    time called ‘the shire’ (see, however, p. 31). But the first names of the
    hobbits were only at the beginning of their protean variations — such
    names as Sago and Semolina would be rejected as unsuitable, others
    (Amalda, Inigo, Obo) would have no place in the final genealogies, and
    yet others (Mungo, Gorboduc) would be given to different persons; only
    the vain Angelica Baggins survived.

  8. sergej:

    (ii)
    The Second Version.

    The next manuscript, while closely based on the first, introduced much
    new material — most notably the arrival of Gandalf, and the fireworks.
    This version breaks off at the words ‘Morning went on’ (FR p. 45).
    The manuscript was much emended, and it is very difficult to distin-
    guish those changes made at the time of composition from those made
    subsequently: in any case the third version no doubt followed hard upon
    the second, superseding it before it was completed. I give this second text
    also in full, so far as it goes, but in this case I include virtually all the
    emendations made to it (in some cases the original reading is given in the
    notes which follow the text on p. 25).

    Chapter 1.

    A long-expected party.

    When Bilbo, son of Bungo, of the respectable family of Baggins
    prepared to celebrate his seventy-first’ birthday there was some
    little talk in the neighbourhood, and people polished up their
    memories.(2) Bilbo had once had some brief notoriety amoug the
    hobbits of Hobbiton and Bywater — he had disappeared after
    breakfast one April 30th and had not reappeared until lunch-time
    on June 22nd in the following year. A very odd proceeding, and
    one for which he had never accounted satisfactorily. He wrote a
    book about it, of course: but even those who had read it never took
    that seriously. It is no good talking to hobbits about dragons: they
    either disbelieve you, or feel uncomfortable; and in either case
    tend to avoid you afterwards. Mr Baggins, however, had soon
    returned to more or less normal ways; and though the shaken
    confidence of the countryside was never quite restored, in time the
    hobbits agreed to pardon the past, and Bilbo was on calling-terms
    again with all his relatives and neighbours, except of course the
    Sackville-Bagginses. For one thing Bilbo seemed by some un-
    explained method to have become more than comfortably off, in
    fact positively wealthy. Indeed it was the magnificence of the
    preparations for his birthday-party far more than his brief and
    distant fame that caused the talk. After all that other odd business
    had happened some twenty years ago and was all but forgotten;
    the party was going to happen that very month of September. The
    weather was fine, and there was talk of a display of fireworks such
    as had not been seen since the days of Old Took.

    Time drew nearer. Odd-looking carts with odd-looking pack-
    ages began to toil up the Hill to Bag-end (the residence of Mr Bilbo
    Baggins). They arrived by night, and startled folk peered out of
    their doors to gape at them. Some were driven by outlandish folk
    singing strange songs, elves, or heavily hooded dwarves. There
    was one huge creaking wain with great lumbering tow-haired Men
    on it that caused quite a commotion. It bore a large B under a
    crown.(3)

  9. sergej:

    It could not get across the bridge by the mill, and the Men
    carried the goods on their backs up the hill — stumping on the
    hobbit road like elephants. All the beer at the inn vanished as if
    down a drain when they came downhill again. Later in the week a
    cart came trotting in in broad daylight. An old man was driving it
    all alone. He wore a tall pointed blue hat and a long grey cloak.
    Hobbit boys and girls ran after the cart all the way up the hill. It
    had a cargo of fireworks, that they could see when it began to
    unload: great bundles of them, labelled with a red G.
    ‘G for grand,’ they shouted; and that was as good a guess as they
    could make at its meaning. Not many of their elders guessed
    better: hobbits have rather short memories as a rule. As for the
    little old man,(4) he vanished inside Bilbo’s front door and never
    reappeared.

    There might have been some grumbling about ‘dealing locally’,
    but suddenly orders began to pour out from Bag-end, and into
    every shop in the neighbourhood (even widely measured). Then
    people stopped being merely curious, and became enthusiastic.
    They began to tick off the days on the calendar till Bilbo’s
    birthday, and they began to watch for the postman, hoping for
    invitations.
    Then the invitations began pouring out, and the post-office
    of Hobbiton was blocked, and Bywater post-office was snowed
    under, and voluntary postmen were called for. There was a
    constant stream of them going up The Hill to Bag-end carrying
    letters containing hundreds of polite variations on ‘thank-you, I
    shall certainly come.’ During all this time, for days and days,
    indeed since September [10th >] 8th, Bilbo had not been seen out
    or about by anyone. He either did not answer the bell, or came to
    the door and cried ‘Sorry — Busy!’ round the edge of it. They
    thought he was only writing invitation cards, but they were not
    quite right.
    Finally the field to the south of his front door — it was bordered
    by his kitchen garden on one side and the Hill road on the other -
    began to be covered with tents and pavilions. The three hobbit-
    families of Bagshot Row just below it were immensely excited.
    There was one specially large pavilion, so large that the tree that
    stood in the field was inside it, standing growing in the middle.(5)

  10. sergej:

    It was hung all over with lanterns. Even more promising was the
    erection of a huge kitchen in a corner of the field. A draught of
    cooks arrived. Excitement rose to its height. Then the weather
    clouded over. That was on Friday, the eve of the party. Anxiety
    grew intense. Then Saturday September [20th >] 22nd (6) actually
    dawned. The sun got up, the clouds vanished, flags were un-
    furled, and the fun began.
    Mr Baggins called it a party — but it was several rolled into one
    and mixed up. Practically everybody near at hand was invited to
    something or other — very few were forgotten (by accident), and as
    they turned up anyhow it did not matter. Bilbo met the guests (and
    additions) at the gate in person. He gave away presents to all and
    sundry — the latter were those that went out again by the back way
    and came in again by the front for a second helping. He began with
    the youngest and smallest, and came back again quickly to the
    smallest and youngest. Hobbits give presents to other people on
    their birthdays: not very expensive ones, of course. But it was not
    a bad system. Actually in Hobbiton and Bywater, since every day
    in the year was somebody’s birthday, it meant that every hobbit
    got a present (and sometimes more) almost every day of his life.
    But they did not get tired of them. On this occasion the hobbit-fry
    were wildly excited — there were toys the like of which they had
    never seen before. As you have guessed, they came from Dale.
    When they got inside the grounds the guests had songs, dances,
    games — and of course food and drink. There were three official
    meals: lunch, tea, and dinner (or supper); but lunch and tea were
    marked chiefly by the fact that at those times everybody was
    sitting down and eating at the same time. Drinking never stopped.
    Eating went on pretty continuously from elevenses to six o’clock,
    when the fireworks started.
    The fireworks of course (as you at any rate have guessed) were
    by Gandalf, and brought by him in person, and let off by him — the
    main ones: there was generous distribution of squibs, crackers,
    sparklers, torches, ‘ dwarf-candles, elf-fountains, goblin-barkers
    and thunderclaps. They were of course superb. The art of Gandalf
    naturally got the older the better.

  11. sergej:

    There were rockets like a flight of scintillating birds singing with sweet voices; there were green trees with trunks of twisted smoke: their leaves opened like a whole spring unfolding in a few minutes, and their shining
    branches dropped glowing flowers down upon the astonished
    hobbits — only to disappear in a sweet scent before they touched
    head hat or bonnet. There were fountains of butterflies that flew
    into the trees; there were pillars of coloured fires that turned into
    hovering eagles, or sailing ships, or a flight of swans; there were
    red thunderstorms and showers of yellow rain; there was a forest
    of silver spears that went suddenly up into the air with a yell like a
    charging army and came down into The Water with a hiss like a
    hundred hot snakes. And there was also one last thing in which
    Gandalf rather overdid it — after all, he knew a great deal about
    hobbits and their beliefs. The lights went out, a great smoke went
    up, it shaped itself like a mountain, it began to glow at the top, it
    burst into flames of scarlet and green, out flew a red-golden dragon
    (not life-size, of course, but terribly life-like): fire came out of its
    mouth, its eyes glared down, there was a roar and it whizzed three
    times round the crowd. Everyone ducked and some fell flat. The
    dragon passed like an express train and burst over Bywater with a
    deafening explosion.
    ‘That means it is dinner-time,’ said Gandalf. A fortunate re-
    mark, for the pain and alarm vanished like magic. Now really we
    must hurry on, for all this is not as important as it seemed. There
    was a supper for all the guests. But there was also a very special
    dinner-party in the great pavilion with the tree. To that party
    invitations had been limited to twelve dozen, or one gross (in
    addition to Gandalf and the host), made up of all the chief
    hobbits, and their elder children, to whom Bilbo was related or
    with whom he was connected, or by whom he had been well-
    treated at any time, or for whom he felt some special affection.

  12. sergej:

    Nearly all the living Baggins[es] had been invited; a quantity of Tooks (his relations on his mother’s side); a number of Grubbs (connections of his grandfather’s), dozens of Brandybucks (connections of his grandmother’s), and various Chubbs and Burrowses and Boffins and Proudfeet — some of whom were not connected with Bilbo at all, within the memory of the local historians; some even lived right on the other side of the Shire; but they were all, of course, hobbits. Even the Sackville-Bagginses, his first cousins on his father’s side, were not omitted. There had
    been some coolness between them and Mr Baggins, as you may remember, dating from some 20 years back. But so splendid was the invitation card, written all in gold, that they felt it was impossible to refuse. Besides, their cousin had been specializing in food for a good many years, and his tables had a high reputation even in that time and country, when food was still all that it ought to be, and abundant enough for all folk to practise both discrimi nation and satisfaction.
    All the 144 special guests expected a pleasant feast; though they rather dreaded the after-dinner speech of their host. He was liable to drag in bits of what he called ‘poetry’; and sometimes, after a glass or two, would allude to the absurd adventures he said he had had long ago — during his ridiculous vanishment. Not one of the 144 were disappointed: they had a eery pleasant feast, indeed an engrossing entertainment: rich, abundant, varied, and prolonged. The purchase of provisions fell almost to zero throughout the district during the ensuing week; but as Mr Baggins’ catering
    had depleted most of the stores, cellars, and warehouses for miles around, that did not matter much.
    After the feast (more or less) came the Speech. Most of the assembled.hobbits were now in a tolerant mood — at that delicious stage which they called filling up the ‘corners’ (with sips of their favourite drinks and nips of their favourite sweetmeats): their former fears were forgotten. They were prepared to listen to anything, and to cheer at every full stop. But they were not prepared to be startled. Yet startled they certainly were: indeed, completely blowed: some even got indigestion.
    My dear people, began Mr Baggins, rising in his place.
    ‘Hear, hear, hear! ‘ they answered in chorus, and seemed reluctant to follow their own advice. Meanwhile Bilbo left his place and went and stood on a chair under the illuminated tree. The lantern light fell upon his beaming face; the gold buttons shone on his flowered waistcoat. They could all see him. One hand was in his pocket. He raised the other.
    My dear Bagginses! he began again. And my dear Tooks and Brandybucks and Crubbs and Chubbs and Burroweses and Bracegirdles and Boffises and Proudfoots.
    ‘Proudfeet!’ shouted an elderly hobbit from the back. His name, of course, was Proudfoot, and merited: his feet were large, exceptionally furry, and both were on the table.
    Also my good Sackville-Bagginses that I welcome back at last to Bag-end. Today is my seventy-first birthday!
    ‘Hurray, hurray! Many Happy Returns! ‘ they shouted, and they hammered joyously on the tables. Bilbo was doing splendidly. That was the sort of stuff they liked: short, obvious, uncontroversial.

  13. sergej:

    I hope you are all enjoying yourselves as much as I am.
    Deafening cheers. Cries of Yes (and No). Noises of horns and trumpets, pipes and flutes, and other musical instruments. There were many junior hobbits present, for hobbits were easygoing with their children in the matter of sitting up late — especially if there was a chance of getting them an extra meal free (bringing up young hobbits took a great deal of provender). Hundreds of musical crackers had been pulled. Most of them bore the mark
    Dale on them somewhere or other, inside or out. What that meant only Bilbo and a few of his close friends knew (and you of course); but they were very marvellous crackers. They contained instruments small but of perfect make and enchanting tone. Indeed in one corner some of the younger Tooks and Brandybucks, supposing Bilbo to have finished his speech (having said all that was needed), now got up an impromptu orchestra, and began a merry
    dance tune. Young Prospero Brandybuck (7) and Melba Took got on a table and started to dance the flip-flap, a pretty thing if rather vigorous. But Bilbo had not finished.
    Seizing a horn from one of the children he blew three very loud notes. The noise subsided. I shall not keep you long, he cried. Cheering broke out again. BUT I have called you all together for a Purpose.
    Something in his voice made a few of the Tooks prick up their ears. Indeed for three Purposes. First of all, to tell you that I am immensely fond of you all; and that seventy-one years is too short a time to live among such excellent and admirable hobbits.
    Tremendous outburst of approval.
    I don’t know half ofyou half as mell as I would like, and less than half of you half as mell as you deserve.
    No cheers this time: it was a bit too difficult. There was some scattered clapping; but not all of them had yet had time to work it out and see if it came to a compliment in the end.
    Secondly, to celebrate my birthday, and the twentieth anniversary of my return. No cheers; there was some uncomfortable rustling.
    Lastly, to make an Announcement. He said this so loudly and suddenly that everyone sat up who could. I regret to announce that — though, as I have said, 71 years is far too short a time among you — this is the END. I am going. I am leaving after dinner. Good- bye!
    He stepped down. One hundred and forty-four flabbergasted hobbits sat back speechless. Mr Proudfoot removed his feet from the table. Mrs Proudfoot swallowed a large chocolate and choked. Then there was complete silence for quite forty winks, until suddenly every Baggins, Took, Brandybuck, Chubb, Grubb, Burrowes, Bracegirdle, Boffin and Proudfoot began to talk at once.
    ‘The hobbit’s mad. Always said so. Bad taste in jokes. Trying to pull the fur off our toes (a hobbit idiom). Spoiling a good dinner.
    Where’s my handkerchief. Won’t drink his health now. Shall drink my own. Where’s that bottle. Is he going to get married? Not to anyone here tonight. Who would take him? Why good-bye? Where is there to go to? What is he leaving?’ And so on. At last old Rory Brandybuck (8) (well-filled but still pretty bright) was heard to shout: ‘Where is he now, anyway? Where’s Bilbo?’
    There was not a sign of their host anywhere.

  14. sergej:

    As a matter of fact Bilbo Baggins had disappeared silently and unnoticed in the midst of all the talk. While he was speaking he had already been fingering a small ring (9) in his trouser-pocket. As he stepped down he had slipped it on — and he was never seen in Hobbiton again.
    When the carriages came for the guests there was no one to say good-bye to. The carriages rolled away, one after another, filled with full but oddly unsatisfied hobbits. Gardeners came (by arrangement) and cleared away in wheelbarrows those that had inadvertently remained behind, asleep or immoveable. Night settled down and passed. The sun rose. The hobbits rose rather later. Morning went on.

    NOTES.

    1. seventy-first emended from seventieth; but seventy-first in the text of Bilbo’s farewell speech as first written.
    2. At this point my father wrote at first:
    Twice before this he had been a matter of local news: a rare
    achievement for a Baggins. The first time was when he was left an
    orphan, when barely forty years old, by the untimely death of his
    father and mother (in a boating accident). The second time was
    more remarkable.
    Such a fate in store for Bungo Baggins and his wife seems most improbable in the light of the words of the first chapter of The Hobbit:
    Not that Belladonna Took ever had any adventures after she
    became Mrs Bungo Baggins. Bungo, that was Bilbo’s father, built
    the most luxurious hobbit-hole for her… and there they remained
    to the end of their days.

    They seem an unlikely couple to have gone ‘fooling about with boats’,
    in Gaffer Gamgee’s phrase, and his recognition of this was no doubt
    the reason why my father immediately struck the passage out; but the
    boating accident was not forgotten, and it became the fate of (Rollo
    Bolger >) Drogo Baggins and his Brandybuck wife, Primula, for
    whom it was a less improbable end (see p. 37) —

    3. At this stage only 20 years separated Bilbo’s adventure in?he Hobbit
    and his farewell party, and my father clearly intended the B on the
    waggon to stand for Bard, King of Dale. Later, when the years had
    been greatly lengthened out, it would be Bain son of Bard who ruled
    in Dale at this time.
    4. In the original Hobbit Gandalf at his first appearance was described as
    ‘a little old man’, but afterwards the word ‘little’ was removed. See

    P- 315.
    5. The single tree in the field below Bag End was already in the illustration of Hobbiton that appeared as the frontispiece to The Hobbit, as also were Bilbo’s kitchen-garden and the hobbit-holes of Bagshot Row (though that name first appears here).
    6. September 20th was the date of Bilbo’s birthday in the first version
    (p. 16).
    7. Prospero Brandybuck was first written Orlando Brandybuck, the
    second bearer of the name: in the list of Bilbo’s gifts in the first version (p. 17 note 5) Gorboduc Grubb had been changed to Orlando Grubb.

  15. sergej:

    8. A very similar passage, indicating the outraged comments of the
    guests, was added to the manuscript of the original draft at this point,
    but it was Inigo Grubb-Took who shouted ‘Where is he now,
    anyway?’ It was the greedy Inigo Grubb-Took who received the
    dinner-service (p. 15), and in this respect he survived into the third
    version of the chapter.
    9. a small ring: emended from his famous ring.

    I have given this text in full, since taken together with the first it provides
    a basis of reference in describing those that follow, from which only
    extracts are given; but it will be seen that the Party — the preparations for
    it, the fireworks, the feast — had already reached the form it retains in FR
    (pp. 34-9), save in a few and quite minor features of the narrative (and
    here and there in tone). This is the more striking when we realize that at
    this stage my father still had very little idea of where he was going: it was
    a beginning without a destination (but see pp. 42-3).
    Certain changes made to the manuscript towards its end have not been
    taken up in the text given above. In Bilbo’s speech, his words ‘Secondly,
    to celebrate my birthday, and the twentieth anniversary of my return’
    and the comment ‘No cheers; there was some uncomfortable rustling’
    were removed, and the following expanded passage substituted:

    Secondly, to celebrate OUR birthdays: mine and my honourable and
    gallant father’s. Uncomfortable and apprehensive silence. I am only
    half the man that he is: I am 72, he is 144. Your numbers are chosen to
    do honour to each of his honourable years. This was really dreadful -
    a regular braintwister, and some of them felt insulted, like leap-days
    shoved in to fill up a calendar.

    This change gives every appearance of belonging closely with the writing
    of the manuscript: it is clearly written in ink, and seems distinct from
    various scattered scribbles in pencil. But the appearance is misleading.
    Why should Bilbo thus refer to old Bungo Baggins, underground these
    many years? Bungo was pure Baggins, ‘solid and comfortable’ (as he is
    described in The Hobbit), and surely died solidly in his bed at Bag End.
    To call him ‘gallant’ seems odd, and for Bilbo to say ‘I am half the man
    that he is’ and ‘he is 144′ rather tastelessly whimsical.
    The explanation is in fact simple: it was not Bilbo who said it, but his
    son, Bingo Baggins, who enters in the third version of ‘A Long-expected
    Party’. The textual point would not be worth mentioning here were it not
    so striking an example of my father’s way of using one manuscript as the
    matrix of the next version, but not correcting it coherently throughout:
    so in this case, he made no structural alterations to the earlier part of the
    story, but pencilled in the name ‘Bingo’ against ‘Bilbo’ on the last pages of
    the manuscript, and (to the severe initial confusion of the editor)
    carefully rewrote a passage of Bilbo’s speech to make it seem that Bilbo
    had taken leave of his senses. It is clear, I think, that it was the sudden
    emergence of this radical new idea that caused him to abandon this
    version.

  16. sergej:

    Other hasty changes altered ‘seventy-first’ to ‘seventy-second’ and ’71′
    to ’72′ at each occurrence, and these belong also with the new story that
    was emerging. In this text, Bilbo’s age in the opening sentence was 70, as
    in the first version, but it was changed to 71 in the course of the chapter
    (note z above). The number of guests at the dinner-party was already 144
    in the text as first written, but nothing is made of this figure; that it was
    chosen for a particular reason only appears from the expanded passage of
    the speech given above: ‘I am 72, he is 144. Your numbers are chosen to
    do honour to each of his honourable years.’ It seems clear that the change
    of 71 to 72 was made because 72 is half of 144. The number of guests
    came first, when the story was still told of Bilbo, and at first had no
    significance beyond its being a dozen dozens, a gross.
    A few other points may be noticed. Gandalf was present at the dinner-
    party; Gaffer Gamgee had not yet emerged, but ‘old Rory Brandybuck’
    makes his appearance (in place of Inigo Grubb-Took, note 8 above); and
    Bilbo does not disappear with a blinding flash. At each stage the number
    of hobbit clans named is increased: so here the Brandybucks emerge, and
    the Bracegirdles were pencilled in, to appear in the third version as
    written.

  17. sergej:

    (iii)
    The Third Version.

    The third draft of ‘A Long-expected Party’ is complete, and is a good
    clear manuscript with relatively little later correction. In this section
    numbered notes again appear at the end (p. 34).
    Discussion of the change made to Bilbo’s speech in the second version
    has already indicated the central new feature of the third: the story is now
    told not of Bilbo, but of his son. On this substitution Humphrey Carpenter
    remarked (Biography p. 185):

    Tolkien had as yet no clear idea of what the new story was going to be
    about. At the end of The Hobbit he had stated that Bilbo ‘remained
    very happy to the end of his days, and those were extraordinarily long.’
    So how could the hobbit have any new adventures worth the name
    without this being contradicted? And had he not explored most of the
    possibilities in Bilbo’s character? He decided to introduce a new
    hobbit, Bilbo’s son — and to give him the name of a family of toy koala
    bears owned by his children, ‘The Bingos’.(1) So he crossed out ‘Bilbo’
    in the first draft and above it wrote ‘Bingo’.

    This explanation is plausible. In the first draft, however, my father wrote
    that the story of the birthday party ‘merely serves to explain that Bilbo
    Baggins got married and had many children, because I am going to tell
    you a story about one of his descendants’ (in the second version we are
    given no indication at all of what was going to happen after the party -
    though there is possibly a suggestion of something similar in the words
    (p. 22) ‘Now really we must hurry on, for all this is not as important as it
    seemed’). On the other hand, there are explicit statements in early notes
    (p. 41) that for a time it was indeed going to be Bilbo who had the new
    ‘adventure’.
    The first part of the third version is almost wholly different from the
    two preceding, and I give it here in full, with a few early changes
    incorporated.

    A long-expected party.

    When Bingo, son of Bilbo, of the well-known Baggins family,
    prepared to celebrate his [fifty-fifth >] seventy-second (3) birthday
    there was some talk in the neighbourhood, and people polished up
    their memories. The Bagginses were fairly numerous in those parts, and generally respected; but Bingo belonged to a branch of the family that was a bit peculiar, and there were some odd stories about them. Bingo’s father, as some still remembered, had once made quite a stir in Hobbiton and Bywater — he had disappeared one April 30th after breakfast, and had not reappeared until lunch-time on June 22nd in the following year. A very odd proceeding, and one for which he had never accounted satisfac-
    torily. He wrote a book about it, of course; but even those who had
    read it never took that seriously.

  18. sergej:

    It is no good telling hobbits about
    dragons: they either disbelieve you, or feel uncomfortable; and in
    either case tend to avoid you afterwards.
    Bilbo Baggins, it is true, had soon returned to normal ways
    (more or less), and though his reputation was never quite
    restored, he became an accepted figure in the neighbourhood. He
    was never perhaps again regarded as a ‘safe hobbit’, but he
    was undoubtedly a ‘warm’ one. In some mysterious way he
    appeared to have become more than comfortably off, in fact
    positively wealthy; so naturally, he was on visiting terms with
    all his neighbours and relatives (except, of course, the Sackville-
    Bagginses). He did two more things that caused tongues to wag:
    he got married when seventy-one (a little but not too late for a
    hobbit), choosing a bride from the other side of the Shire, and
    giving a wedding-feast of memorable splendour; he disappeared
    (together with his wife) shortly before his hundred-and-eleventh
    birthday, and was never seen again. The folk of Hobbiton and
    Bywater were cheated of a funeral (not that they had expected his
    for many a year yet), so they had a good deal to say. His residence,
    his wealth, his position (and the dubious regard of the neigh-
    bourhood) were inherited by his son Bingo, just before his own
    birthday (which happened to be the same as his father’s). Bingo
    was, of course, a mere youngster of 39, who had hardly cut his
    wisdom-teeth; but he at once began to carry on his father’s
    reputation for oddity: he never went into mourning for his
    parents, and said he did not think they were dead. To the obvious
    question: ‘Where are they then?’ he merely winked. He lived
    alone, and was often away from home. He went about a lot with
    the least well-behaved members of the Took family (his grand-
    mother’s people and his father’s friends), and he was also fond of
    some of the Brandybucks. They were his mother’s relatives. She
    was Primula Brandybuck (4) of the Brandybucks of Buckland, across
    Brandywine River on the other side of the Shire and on the edge of
    the Old Forest — a dubious region.(5) Folk in Hobbiton did not know
    much about it, or about the Brandybucks either; though some had
    heard it said that they were rich, and would have been richer, but
    for a certain ‘recklessness’ — generosity, that is, if any came your
    way.
    Anyway, Bingo had lived at Bag-end Underhill now for some
    [16 >] 33 years without giving any scandal. His parties were
    sometimes a bit noisy, perhaps, but hobbits don’t mind that kind
    of noise now and again. He spent his money freely and mostly
    locally. Now the neighbourhood understood that he was planning
    something quite unusual in the way of parties. Naturally their
    memories awoke and their tongues wagged, and Bingo’s wealth
    was again guessed and re-calculated at every fireside. Indeed the
    magnificence of the preparations quite overshadowed the tales of
    the old folk about his father’s vanishments.
    ‘After all,’ as old Gaffer Gamgee of Bagshot Row (7) remarked,
    ‘them goings-on are old affairs and over; this here party is going to
    happen this very month as is.’ It was early September and as fine
    as you could wish.

  19. sergej:

    Somebody started a rumour about fireworks. Very soon it was accepted that there were going to be fireworks such as had not been seen for over a century, not since the Old Took died.

    It is interesting to see the figures III and 33 emerging, though afterwards
    they would be differently achieved: here, Bilbo was r x i when he left the
    Shire, and Bingo lived on at Bag End for 33 years before his farewell
    party; afterwards, r x z was Bilbo’s age at the time of the party — when it
    had become his party again — and 33 Bingo’s (Frodo’s) age at the same
    time.
    In this passage we also see the emergence of a very important piece of
    topography and toponymy’: Buckland, the Brandywine, and the Old
    Forest. For the names first written here see note 5.

    For the account in this version of the preparations for the Party,
    the Party itself, and its immediate aftermath, my father followed the
    emended second version (pp. 19 — 25) extremely closely, adding a detail
    here and there, but for the most part doing little more than copy it out
    (and of course changing ‘Bilbo’ to ‘Bingo’ where necessary). I give here a
    list of interesting — though mostly extremely minor — shifts in the new
    narrative. The page references are to those of the second version.

    (20 — 1) ‘B under a crown’ on the waggon driven by Men becomes ‘B
    painted in yellow’, and ‘B’ was emended on the text to ‘D’ (i.e.
    ‘Dale’).

    When the Men came down the Hill again, it is added that ‘the
    elves and dwarves did not return’, and ‘the draught of cooks’

    who arrived were ‘to supplement the elves and dwarves (who
    seemed to be staying at Bag-end and doing a lot of mysterious
    work)’.

    The notice refusing admittance on the door of Bag End now
    appears, and ‘a special entrance was cut in the bank leading to
    the road; wide steps and a large white gate were built’ (as in
    FR). Gaffer Gamgee comes in again: ‘he stopped even pre-
    tending to garden.’

    The day of the party was still a Saturday (September 22nd).

    Many of the toys (‘some obviously magical’) that had come
    from Dale were ‘genuinely dwarf-made’.

    (22). It is Bingo, not Gandalf, who at the end of the fireworks says
    ‘That is the signal for supper! ‘, and though it was said at first, as
    m the second version, that the total of 144 guests did not include
    the host and Gandalf, this was struck out (see p. 106, note 12).

  20. sergej:

    A new Hobbit family-name enters in the list of guests: ‘and various Burroweses, Slocums, Bracegirdles, Boffinses and Proudfoots’, but ‘Slocums’ was then changed to ‘Hornblowers’, which was also added in to the text at subsequent points in the chapter. The Bolgers appear in pencilled additions, and are present from the start in the fourth version. In his letter to the Observer newspaper published on 20 February 1938 (Letters no. 25) my father said: ‘The full list of their wealthier families is:
    Baggins, Boffin, Bolger, Bracegirdle, Brandybuck, Burrowes, Chubb, Grubb, Hornblower, Proudfoot, Sackville, and Took.’
    — The Grubbs, connexions of Bingo’s grandfather, became by a pencilled change connexions of his grandmother; and the Chubbs, in a reverse change, were first said to be connexions of his grandmother and then of his grandfather.
    Where in the first and second versions it is said that some of the hobbits at the party came from ‘the other side of the shire’, it is now said that some of them ‘did not even live in that county’, changed to ‘in that Shire’, and ‘in that Shire’ was retained in the fourth version. The use of ‘that’ rather than ‘the’ suggests that the later use (cf. the Prologue to LR, p. 14: ‘The Hobbits
    named it the Shire, as the region of the authority of their Thain’) was only in the process of emergence.

    The coldness between the Bagginses of Bag End and the Sackville-Bagginses had now lasted, not 20 years as in the first two versions, but ‘some seventy-five years and more’: this figure depends on III (Bilbo’s age when he finally disappeared) less 51 (he was ‘about fifty years old or so’ at the time of his great adventure, according to The Hobbit), plus the 16 years of Bingo’s solitary residence at Bag End. ‘Seventy-five’ was emended to ‘ninety’ (a round figure), which belongs with the change of 16 to 33 (p.30).

    (23). Bingo was liable to allude to ‘the absurd adventures of his
    «gallant and famous» father’.

    (24). The two young hobbits who got on the table and danced are still Prospero Brandybuck and Melba Took, but Melba was changed in pencil first to Arabella and then to Amanda.

    Bingo now said, as did Bilbo in FR (p. 38), ‘I like less than half of you half as well as you deserve.’

    Bingo’s second purpose’ is expressed in exactly the words written into the second version (see p. 27): ‘to celebrate OUR birthdays: mine and my honourable and gallant father’s. I am only half the man he is: I am 72, and he is 144′, &c.

    Bingo’s last words, ‘I am leaving after dinner’, were corrected on the manuscript to ‘I am leaving now.’

    (25). The collected comments after Bingo’s concluding remarks now begin: ‘The hobbit’s mad. Always said so. And his father. He’s been dead 33 years, I know. 144, all rubbish.’

  21. sergej:

    And Rory Brandybuck shouts: ‘Where is Bilbo — confound it, Bingo I
    mean. Where is he?’

    After ‘he was never seen in Hobbiton again’ is added. «The ring was his father’s parting gift.’
    From the point where the second version ends at the words ‘Morning went on’ the third goes back to the original draft (p. 15) and follows it closely until near the end, using pretty well the same phrases, and largely retaining the original list (as emended, p. 17 note 5) of names and labels for the recipients of presents from Bag End- these being now, of course, presents from Bilbo’s son Bingo.
    Semolina Baggins is called ‘an aunt, or first cousin once removed’, Caramella Took (changed later to Bolger) ‘had been favoured among [Bingo's] junior and remoter cousins’,
    Obo Took-Took who received a feather-bed remained as a great-uncle, but Obo was emended on the manuscript to Rollo;
    Corboduc (> Otfando) Grubb of the first draft, recipient of a gold
    fountain-pen, becomes Orfando Burrowes;
    Mungo Took, lnigo Grubb-Took, and Angelica Baggins remain; and
    two new beneficiaries are named before Mrs Sackville-Baggins at the end
    of the list:
    For the collection of Hugo Bracegirdle, from contributor: on an
    (empty) bookcase. Hugo was a great borrower of books, but a small
    returner.

    For Cosimo Chubb, treat it as your own, Bingo: on the barometer.
    Cosimo used to bang it with a large fat finger whenever he came to call.
    He was afraid of getting wet, and wore a scarf and macintosh all the
    year round.
    For Grimalda [> Lobelia] Sackville-Baggins, as a present: on a case of silver spoons. It was believed by Bilbo Baggins that she had acquired a good many of his spoons while he was away — ninety odd years before. Bingo inherited the belief, and Grimalda [) Lobelia] knew it.

    It is also mentioned that ‘Bingo had very carefully disposed of his treasures: books, pictures, and a collection of toys. For his wines he found a very good (if temporary) home. Most of them went to Marmaduke Brandybuck’ (predecessor of Meriadoc). The original draft is closely followed in the absence of any money or jewelry, and in the legal notice disposing of Bag End to the Sackville-Bagginses (but Bilbo’s cousin now becomes Otho, and their occupancy is to start from September 24th)- ‘and they got Bag-end after all, though they had to wait 93 years longer for it than they had once expected’: III less 51 plus 33, see pp. 31-2.(8) Sancho Proudfoot appears, excavating in the pantry where he thought there was an echo (as in FR, p. 48); physically attacked by Otho Sackville-Baggins, he was only finally ejected by the lawyers, first called ‘Grubbs and Burrowes’, as in The Hobbit, then changed to ‘Messrs. lago Grubb and Folco Burrowes (Bingo’s lawyers)’.
    The conclusion of the third version I give in full.

  22. sergej:

    The fact is Bingo’s money had become a legend, and everybody was puzzled and anxious — though still hopeful. How he would have laughed. Indeed he was as near laughing as he dared at that very moment, for he was inside a large cupboard outside the dining-room door, and heard most of the racket. He was inside, of course, not for concealment, but to avoid being bumped into, being totally invisible. He had to laugh rather privately and silently, but all the same he was enjoying his joke: it was turning out so much like his expectation.

    I suppose it is now becoming all too plain to everyone but the anxious and grabsome hobbits. The fact is that (in spite of certain things in his after-dinner speech) Bingo had grown suddenly tired of them all. A violent fit of Tookishness had come over him — not of course that all Tooks had much of this wayward quality, their mothers being Chubbs, Hornblowers, Bolgers, Bracegirdles, Grubbs and what not; but Tooks were on the whole the most jocular and unexpected of Hobbits. Also I can tell you something more, in case you have not guessed: Bingo had no money or jewelry left! Practically none, that is. Nothing worth digging up a nice hobbit-hole for. Money went a prodigious way in those days, and one could get quite a lot of things without it; but he had blown
    his last 500 ducats on the birthday party. That was Brandybuck-
    some of him. After that he had nothing left but the buttons on his waistcoat, a small bag-purse of silver, and his ring. In the course of 33 years he had contrived to spend all the rest — what was left, that is, by his father, who had done a bit of spending in fifty years (9) (and had required some travelling-expenses).
    Well, there it is. All things come to an end. Evening came on. Bag-end was left empty and gloomy. People went away — haggling and arguing, most of them. You could hear their voices coming up the Hill in the dusk. Very few gave a thought to Bingo. They decided he had gone mad, and run off, and that was one Baggins the less, and that was that. They were annoyed about the legendary money, of course, but meanwhile there was tea waiting for them. There were some, of course, who regretted his sudden disappearance — a few of his younger friends were really distressed. But not all of them had said good-bye to him. That is easily explained, and soon will be.

    Bingo stepped out of the cupboard. It was getting dim. His watch said six. The door was open, as he had kept the key in his pocket. He went out, locked the door (leaving the key), and looked at the sky. Stars were coming out.
    ‘It is going to be a fine night,’ he said. ‘What a lark! Well, I must not keep them waiting. Now we’re off. Goodbye!’ He trotted down the garden, jumped the fence, and took to the fields, and passed like an invisible rustle in the grasses.

  23. sergej:

    NOTES.

    1. I find it difficult to believe this, yet if it is not so the coincidence is strange. If Bingo Baggins did get his name from this source, I can only suppose that the demonic character (composed of monomaniac religious despotism and a lust for destruction through high explosive) of the chief Bingo (not to mention that of his appalling wife), by which my sister and I now remember them, developed somewhat later.
    2. The substitution was not made in the first draft, but in pencilled corrections to the end of the second version (p. 27).
    3. The change of ‘fifty-fifth’ to ‘seventy-second’ was made at the same time as the 16 years during which Bingo lived at Bag End after his parents’ departure were changed to 33 (note 6). These changes were made before the chapter was finished, since later in it, in Bingo’s farewell speech, the revised figures are present from the first writing. When at the outset he wrote ‘fifty-fifth birthday’ and ’16 years’ my father was presumably intending to get rid of the idea, appearing in rewriting of the second version (see p. 27), that the number of 144 guests was chosen for an inner reason, since on Bingo’s 55th birthday his father Bilbo would have been 127 (having left the Shire 16 years before at the age of x x i, when Bingo was 39).
    4. Primula was first written Amalda. In the first version (p. 16) Amalda was the name of Mrs Sackville-Baggins. In the fourth version of ‘A long-expected party’, when Bilbo had returned to his bachelor state, Primula Brandybuck, no longer his wife, remained Bingo’s mother.
    5. My father first wrote here: the Brandybucks of Wood Eaton on the
    other side of the shire, on the edge of Buckwood — a dubious region.’
    He first changed (certainly at the time of writing) the name of the
    Brandybuck stronghold from Wood Eaton (a village in the Cherwell
    valley near Oxford) to Bury Underwood (where ‘Bury’ is the very
    common English place-name element derived from Old English
    byrig, the dative of burg ‘fortified place, town’); then he introduced
    the name of the river, replaced Bury Underwood by Buckland, and
    replaced Buckwood by the Old Forest.
    6. This change was made at the same time as ’55′ to ’72′ for Bingo’s years at the time of the birthday party; see.note 3.
    7. This is the first appearance of Gaffer Gamgee, living in Bagshot Row (first mentioned in the second version, p. ax).
    8. As mentioned in note 3, the later figure of 72 for 55 as Bingo’s age on this birthday, and 33 for 16 as the number of years in which he lived on alone at Bag End after Bilbo’s departure, which appear as emendations in the early part of the text, are in the later part of the chapter present from the first writing.
    One would expect ‘sixty’ (III less 51): see pp. 3

  24. sergej:

    Note on Hobbit-names.

    It will be seen that delight in the names and relations of the hobbit-families of the Shire from which the ramifying genealogies would spring was present from the start. In no respect did my father chop and change more copiously. Already we have met, apart from Bilbo and Bungo Baggins and Belladonna Took who appeared. in The Hobbit:
    Baggins: Angelica; Inigo; Semolina
    Bolger: Caramella (replacing Caramella Took)
    Bracegirdle: Hugo
    Brandybuck: Amalda > Primula; Marmaduke; Orlando > Prospero;
    Rory

    Burrowes: Folco; Orlando (replacing Orlando Grubb)
    Chubb: Cosimo
    Grubb: Gorboduc > Orlando; Iago
    Crubb-Took: Inigo
    Proudfoot: Sancho
    Sackville-Baggins: Amalda > Lonicera or Griselda > Grimalda >
    Lobelia; Sago > Cosmo > Otho
    Took: Caramella; Melba > Arabella > Amanda; Mungo
    Took-Took: Obo > Rollo

    (iv)
    The Fourth Version.

    Two further changes, embodying an important shift, were made to the manuscript of the third version. They were carefully made, in red ink, but concomitant changes later in the text were not made. In the first sentence of the chapter (p. 28) ‘Bingo, son of Bilbo’ was altered to ‘Bingo Bolger-Baggins’; and in the third sentence ‘Bingo’s father’ was altered to ‘Bingo’s uncle (and guardian), Bilbo Baggins.’
    We come now therefore to a further stage, where the ‘long-expected party’ is still Bingo’s, not Bilbo’s, but Bingo is his nephew, not his son, and Bilbo’s marriage (as was inevitable, I think) has been rejected.
    The fourth version is a typescript, made by my father. It was emended very heavily later on, but these changes belong to the second phase of the writing of The Fellowship of the Ring, and here I ignore them. The alterations to the third version just referred to were now incorporated into the text (which therefore now begins: ‘When Bingo Bolger-Baggins of the well-known Baggins family prepared to celebrate his seventy-second birthday…’), but otherwise it proceeds as an exact copy of the third version as far as ‘he was on visiting terms with all his neighbours and relatives (except, of course, the Sackville-Bagginses)’(p. 29) . Here it diverges.

    But folk did not bother him much. He was frequently out. And if he was in, you never knew who you would find with him: hobbits of quite poor families, or folk from distant villages, dwarves, and even sometimes elves.

  25. sergej:

    He did two more things that caused tongues to wag. At the age of ninety-nine he adopted his nephew — or to be accurate (Bilbo scattered the titles nephew and niece about rather recklessly) his first cousin once removed, Bingo Bolger, a lad of twenty-seven. They had heard very little about him, and that not too good (they said). As a matter of fact Bingo was the son of Primula Brandybuck (and Rollo Bolger, who was quite unimportant); and she was the daughter of Mirabella Took (and Gorboduc Brandybuck, who was rather important); and she was one of three remarkable daughters of the Old Took, for long the head of the hobbits who lived across The Water. And so the Tooks come in again- always a disturbing element, especially when mixed with Brandybuck. For Primula was a Brandybuck of Buckland, across the Brandywine River, on the other side of the Shire and at the edge of the Old Forest — a dubious region. Folk in Hobbiton did not know much about it, or about the Brandybucks either; though some had heard it said that they were rich, and would have been richer, if they bad not been reckless. What had happened to Primula and her husband was not known for certain in Hobbiton. There was rumour of a boating accident on the Brandywine River — the sort of thing that Brandybucks would go in for. Some said that Rollo Bolger had died young of overeating; others mid that it was his weight
    that had sunk the boat.
    Anyway, Bilbo Baggins adopted Master Bolger, announced that he would make him his heir, changed his name to Bolger-Baggins, and still further offended the Sackville-Bagginses. Then shortly before his hundred-and-eleventh birthday Bilbo disappeared finally and was never seen in Hobbiton again. His relatives and neighbours lost the chance of a funeral, and they had a good deal to say. But it made no difference: Bilbo’s residence, his
    wealth, his position (and the dubious regard of the more influential hobbits), were inherited by Bingo Bolger-Baggins.
    Bingo was a mere youngster of thirty-nine and had hardly cut his wisdom-teeth; but he at once began to carry on his uncle’s reputation for oddity. He refused to go into mourning, and within a week gave a birthday-party — for himself and his uncle (their birthdays happened to be on the same day). At first people were shocked, but he kept up the custom year after year, until they got used to it. He said he did not think Bilbo Baggins was dead. When
    they asked the obvious question: ‘Where is he then?’ he merely winked. He lived alone, and was often away from home. He went about a good deal with the least well-behaved members of the Took family (his grandmother’s people); and he was also fond of the Brandybucks {his mother’s relatives).
    Anyway, Bingo Bolger-Baggins had been the master of Bag-end Underhill now for thirty-three years without doing anything outrageous. His parties were sometimes a bit noisy…

    With Gorboduc Brandybuck and Mirabella Took (one of ‘the three remarkable daughters of the Old Took’ who had been mentioned in?he Hobbit) the genealogy now becomes that of LR, except that Primula Brandybuck’s husband (Bilbo in the third version) is Rollo Bolger, not Drogo Baggins; and the boating accident reappears (see p. 25, note a).

  26. sergej:

    From here to the end the typescript follows the third version (as emended) very closely, and there is little further to add. Bilbo becomes Bingo’s ‘uncle’ throughout, of course; Bingo was liable to allude to ‘the absurd adventures of his «gallant and famous» uncle’ (see p. 32). But, with this change, Bingo’s remarks in his speech on the ages of himself and his uncle and the number of guests at the party remain exactly the same, and ‘The ring was his uncle’s parting gift’ (ibid.).
    Small changes of wording move the text towards the final form in FR; for example, where in the third version Rory Brandybuck is described as ‘well-filled but still brighter than many’, it is now said of him that his ‘wits neither old age, nor surprise, nor an enormous dinner, had quite clouded’. But to set out even a portion of such developments in expression between closely related versions would obviously be quite impracticable. There are however a few minor narrative shifts which I collect in the following notes, with page-references indicating where the relevant passages in earlier versions are to be found.

    (30) Gaffer Gamgee had a little more to say:

    ‘… A very nice well-spoken gentlehobbit is Mr Bolger-Baggins, as I’ve always said.’ And that was perfectly true; for Bingo had always been very polite to Gaffer Gamgee, calling him Mr Gamgee, and discussing potatoes with him over the hedge.

    (21, 31) The day of the party now becomes Thursday (not Saturday) 22 September (a change made to the typescript, but carefully over an erasure and clearly belonging to the time of typing).

    (31) There is no further reference to Gandalf in the chapter, after the
    fireworks.

    (24, 32) The young hobbits who danced on the table are Prospero Took and Melissa Brandybuck.

    (32 — 3) Several names are changed among the recipients of gifts from Bag End, Caramella (Took )) Bolger becomes Caramella Chubb; the comatose Rollo Took- Took becomes Fosco Bolger (and is Bingo’s uncle); Inigo Grubb-Took the glutton, who had survived from the first draft, is now Inigo Grubb; and Cosimo Chubb the barometer-tapper becomes Cosimo Hornblower.

    (33) It is now added that ‘The poorer hobbits did very well, especially old Gaffer Gamgee, who got about half a ton of potatoes’, that Bingo had a collection of magical toys; and that he and his friends drank nearly all the wine, the remainder still going to Marmaduke Brandybuck.

    (16, 33) The legal notice in the hall at Bag End is extended, and followed by a new passage:

  27. sergej:

    Bingo Bolger-Baggins Esqre. departing hereby devises delivers and makes over by free gift the desirable property and messuage or dwelling-hole known as Bag-end Underhill with all lands thereto belonging and annexed to Otho Sackville-Baggins Esqre. and his wife Lobelia for them jointly to have hold possess occupy let on lease or otherwise dispose of at their pleasure as from September the twenty fourth in the seventy second year of the aforesaid Bingo Bolger-Baggins and the one hundred and forty fourth year of Bilbo Baggins who as former rightful mvners hereby relinquish all claims to the abovesaid property as from the date aforesaid.
    The notice was signed Bingo Bolger-Baggins for self and uncle. Bingo was not a lawyer, and he mereIy put things that way to please Otho Sackville-Baggins, who was a lawyer. Otho certainly was pleased, but whether by the language or the property is difficult to say. Anyway, as soon m he had read the notice he shouted: ‘Ours at last!’ So I suppose it was all right, at least according to the legal notions of hobbits. And that is how the Sackville-Bagginses got Bag-end in the end, though they had to wait ninety-three years longer for it than they had once expected.

    (33) The lawyers who ejected Sancho Proudfoot do not appear.

    An addition is made to the passage describing the character of the Tooks: ‘and since they had inherited both enormous wealth and no little courage from the Old Took, they carried things off with a pretty high hand at times.’

    (34) The reference to Bilbo’s having ‘done a bit of spending in fifty years’ was changed; the text now reads: ‘- what was left him by his Uncle, that is; for Bilbo had done a bit of spending in his time.’

    ‘A few were distressed at his sudden disappearance; one or two were not distressed, because they were in the know — but they were not at Bag-end.’

    Thus it is never explained why Bingo (or Bilbo in the first version), for whom money was now a severe problem (and one of the reasons for his departure), simply handed over ‘the desirable property known as Bag-end’ to the Sackville-Bagginses ‘by free gift’.
    There were further twists still to come in this amazingly sinuous evolution before the final structure was reached, but this was how the opening chapter stood for some time, and Bingo Bolger-Baggins, ‘nephew’ or more properly first cousin once removed of Bilbo Baggins, is present throughout the original form of Book I of The Fellowship of the King. I set out briefly here the major shifts and stages encountered thus far.

  28. sergej:

    A Long-expected party.

    Version I. Bilbo gives the party, aged 70. (‘I am going to tell you a
    story about one of his descendants’)

    Version II. Bilbo gives the party, aged 71.

    Version III. Bilbo married, and disappeared from Hobbiton with his
    wife (Primula Brandybuck) when he was III.
    His son Bingo Baggins gives the party, aged 72.

    Version IV. Bilbo, unmarried, adopted his young cousin Bingo Bolger
    (son of Primula Brandybuck), changed his name to Bingo
    Bolger-Baggins, and disappeared from Hobbiton when he
    was III.
    His adopted cousin Bingo Bolger-Baggins gives the party,
    aged 72.

  29. sergej:

    (v)
    ‘The Tale that is Brewing’.

    It was to the fourth version (writing on the typescript shows that it went
    to Allen and Unwin) that my father referred in a letter to Charles Furth
    on 1 February 1938, six weeks after he began the new book:

    Would you ask Mr Unwin whether his son [Rayner Unwin, then
    twelve years old], a very reliable critic, would rare to read the first
    chapter of the sequel to The Hobbit? I have typed it. I have no
    confidence in it, but if he thought it a promising beginning, could add
    to it the tale that is brewing.

    What was ‘the tale that is brewing’? The texts of ‘A Long-expected Party’
    provide no clues, except that the end of the third version (p. 34) makes it
    clear that when Bingo left Bag End he was going to meet, and go off with,
    some of his younger friends — and this is hinted at already at the end of the
    first draft (p. 17); in the fourth version this is repeated, and ‘one or two’
    of his friends were ‘in the know’ — and ‘they were not at Bag-end’ (p. 39).
    Of course it is clear, too, that Bilbo is not dead; and (with knowledge of
    what was in fact to come) we may count the references to Buckland and
    the Old Forest (pp. 29, 37) as further hints.
    But there are some jottings from this time, written on two sides of a
    single sheet of paper, that do give some inkling of what was ‘brewing’.
    The first of these reads:

    Bilbo goes off with 3 Took nephews: Odo, Frodo, and Drogo
    [changed to Odo, Drogo, and Frodo]. He has only a small bag of
    money. They walk all night — East. Adventures: troll-like: witch-
    house on way to Rivendell. Elrond again [added: (by advice of
    Gandalf?)]. A tale in Elrond’s house.
    Where is G[andalf] asks Odo — said I was old and foolish enough
    now to take care of myself said B. But I dare say he will turn up, he is
    apt to.

    There follows a note to the effect that while Odo believed no more than a
    quarter of ‘B.’s stories’, Drogo was less sceptical, and Frodo believed
    them ‘almost completely’. The character of this last nephew was early
    established, though he was destined to disappear (see p. 70): he is not the
    forerunner of Frodo in LR. All this seems to have been written at one
    time. On the face of it, it must belong with the second (unfinished)
    version of ‘A Long-expected Party’, since it is Bilbo who ‘goes off’
    (afterwards my father bracketed the words ‘Bilbo goes off with 3 Took
    nephews’ and wrote ‘Bingo’ above). The implication is presumably that
    when Bilbo set out with his nephews Gandalf was no longer present.

  30. sergej:

    Then follows, in pencil: ‘Make return of ring a motive.’ This no doubt
    refers to the statement in the third version that ‘The ring was his
    [Bingo's] father’s parting gift’ (p. 32).
    After a note suggesting the coming of a dragon to Hobbiton and a more
    heroic role for hobbits, a suggestion rejected with a pencilled ‘No’, there
    follows, apparently all written at one time (but with a later pencilled
    heading ‘Conversation of Bingo and Bilbo’):

    ‘No one,’ said B., ‘can escape quite unscathed from dragons. The only
    thing is to shun them (if you can) like the Hobbitonians, though not
    nec[essarily] to disbelieve in them (or refuse to remember them) like
    the H[obbitonians]. Now I have spent all my money which seemed
    once to me too much and my own has gone after it [sic]. And I don’t
    like being without after [?having] — in fact I am being lured. Well,
    well, twice one is not always two, as my father used to say. But at any
    rate I think I would rather wander as a poor man than sit and shiver.
    And Hobbiton rather grows on you in 20 years, don’t you think; grows
    too heavy to bear, I mean. Anyway, we are off — and it’s autumn. I
    enjoy autumn wandering.’

    Asks Elrond what he can do to heal his money-wish and unsettle-
    ment. Elrond tells him of an island. Britain? Far west where the Elves
    still reign. Journey to perilous isle.
    I want to look again on a live dragon.

    This is certainly Bilbo, and the passage (though not of course the
    pencilled heading) precedes the third version, as the reference to ’20
    years’ shows (see pp. 22, 31). — At the foot of the page are these faint
    pencilled scrawls:

    Bingo goes to find his father.
    You said you…. end your days in contentment — so I hope to
    The illegible word might possibly be ‘want’. — On the reverse of the page
    is the following coherent passage in ink:

    The Ring: whence its origin. Necromancer? Not very dangerous, when
    used for good purpose. But it exacts its penalty. You must either lose
    it, or yourself. Bilbo could not bring himself to lose it. He starts on a
    holiday [struck out: with his wife] handing over ring to Bingo. But he
    vanishes. Bingo worried. Resists desire to go and find him — though he
    does travel round a lot looking for news. Won’t lose ring as he feels it
    will ultimately bring him to his father.

    At last he meets Gandalf. Gandalf’s advice. You must stage a
    disappearance, and the ring may then be cheated into letting you
    follow a similar path. But you have got to really disappear and give up
    the past. Hence the ‘party’.

    Bingo confides in his friends. Odo, Frodo, and Vigo (?) insist on
    coming too. Gandalf rather dubious. You will share the same fate as
    Bingo, he said, if you dare the ring. Look what happened to Primula.

  31. sergej:

    A couple of pencilled changes were made to this: above ‘Vigo(?)’ my
    father wrote ‘Marmaduke’; and he bracketed the last sentence. — Since
    Bingo is here Bilbo’s son this note belongs with the third version. But the
    watery death of Primula Brandybuck (no longer Bilbo’s wife, but still
    Bingo’s mother) is first recorded in the fourth version (p. 37), and the
    Ring could not possibly be associated with that event; so that the
    reference to ‘Primula’ here must refer to something else of which there is
    no other trace.
    Particularly noteworthy is the suggestion that the idea of the Party
    arose from Gandalf’s advice to Bingo concerning the Ring. It is indeed
    remarkable that already at this stage, when my father was still working on
    the opening chapter, so much of the Ring’s nature was already present in
    embryo. — The final two notes are in pencil. The first reads:

    Bilbo goes to Elrond to cure dragon-longing, and settles down in
    Rivendell. Hence Bingo’s frequent absences from home. The dragon-
    longing comes on Bingo. Also ring-lure.

    With Bingo’s ‘frequent absences from home’ cf. ‘he was often away from
    home’ in the third version (p. 29), and ‘Resists desire to go and find him -
    though he does travel round a lot looking for news’ in the note on the Ring
    given above. And the last:

    Make dubious regions — Old Forest on way to Rivendell. South of
    River. They turn aside to call up Frodo Br[andybuck] [written above:
    Marmaduke], get lost and caught by Willowman and by Barrow-
    wights. T. Bombadil comes in.
    ‘South’ was changed from ‘North’, and ‘East’ is written in the margin.

    On a separate page (in fact on the back of my father’s earliest surviving
    map of the Shire) is a brief ‘scheme’ that is closely associated with these
    last notes; at the head of it my father afterwards wrote Genesis of ‘Lord of
    the Rings’.

    B.B. sets out with z nephews. They turn S[outh] ward to collect Frodo
    Brandybuck. Get lost in Old Forest. Adventure with Willowman and
    Barrow-wights. T. Bombadil.
    Reach Rivendell and find Bilbo. Bilbo had had a sudden desire to
    visit the Wild again. But meets Gandalf at Rivendell. Learns about
    [sic; here presumably the narrative idea changes] Gandalf had turned
    up at Bag-end. Bilbo tells him of desire for Wild and gold. Dragon
    curse working. He goes to Rivendell between the worlds and settles
    down.
    Ring must eventually go back to Maker, or draw you towards it.
    Rather a dirty trick handing it on?

  32. sergej:

    It is interesting to see the idea already present that Bingo and his
    companions would turn aside to ‘collect’ or ‘call up’ another hobbit, at
    first named Frodo Brandybuck, but changed to Marmaduke (Brandy-
    buck). Frodo Brandybuck also appears in initial drafting for the second
    chapter (p. 45) as one of Bingo’s three companions on his departure from
    Hobbiton. There are various ways of combining all these references to
    the three (or two) nephews, so as to present a series of successive
    formulations, but names and roles were still entirely fluid and ephemeral
    and no certainty is possible. Only in the first full text of the second
    chapter does the story become clear (for a time): Bingo set out with two
    companions, Odo Took and Frodo Took.
    It is to be noted that Tom Bombadil, the Willow-man, and the
    Barrow-wights were already in existence years before my father began
    The turd of the Rings; see p. 115.

    On 11 February 1938 Stanley Unwin reported to my father that his son
    Rayner had read the first chapter and was delighted with it. On 17
    February my father wrote to Charles Furth at Allen and Unwin:

    They say it is the first step that costs the effort. I do not find it so. I am
    sure I could write unlimited ‘first chapters’. I have indeed written
    many. The Hobbit sequel is still where it was, and I have only the
    vaguest notions of how to proceed. Not ever intending any sequel, I
    fear I squandered all my favourite ‘motifs’ and characters on the
    original ‘Hobbit’.

    And on the following day he replied to Stanley Unwin:

    I am most grateful to your son Rayner: and am encouraged. At the
    same time I find it only too easy to write opening chapters — and for the

    moment the story is not unfolding. I have unfortunately very little
    time, made shorter by a rather disastrous Christmas vacation. I
    squandered so much on the original ‘Hobbit’ (which was not meant to
    have a sequel) that it is difficult to find anything new in that world.

    But on 4 March 1938, in the course of a long letter to Stanley Unwin on
    another subject, he said:

    The sequel to The Hobbit has now progressed as far as the end of the
    third chapter. But stories tend to get out of hand, and this has taken an
    unpremeditated turn. Mr Lewis and my youngest boy are reading it in
    bits as a serial. I hesitate to bother your son, though I should value his
    criticism. At any rate if he would like to read it in serial form he can.

    The ‘unpremeditated turn’, beyond any doubt, was the appearance of the
    Black Riders.

  33. sergej:

    II.
    FROM HOBBITON TO THE
    WOODY END.

    The original manuscript drafts for the second chapter of The Lord of the
    Rings do not constitute a completed narrative, however rough, but
    rather, disconnected parts of the narrative, in places in more than one
    version, as the story expanded and changed in the writing. The fact that
    my father had typed out the first chapter by r February 1938 (p. 40), but
    on 17 February wrote (p. 43) that while first chapters came easily to him
    ‘the Hobbit sequel is still where it was,’ suggests strongly that the original
    drafting of this second chapter followed the typing of the fourth version
    of ‘A Long-expected Party’.
    There followed a typescript text, with a title ‘Three’s Company and
    Four’s More’; this will be given in full, but before doing so earlier stages
    of the story (one of them of the utmost interest) must be looked at.
    The first rough manuscript begins with Odo and Frodo Took (but
    Frodo at once changed to Drogo) sitting on a gate at night and talking
    about the events at Bag End that afternoon, while ‘Frodo Brandybuck
    was sitting on a pile of haversacks and packs and looking at the stars.’
    Frodo Brandybuck, it seems, was brought in here from the role prepared
    for him in the notes given on pp. 42-3, in one of which he was replaced
    by Marmaduke (Brandybuck). Bingo, coming up behind silently and
    invisibly, pushed Odo and Drogo off the gate; and after the ensuing
    raillery the draft continues:

    ‘Have you three any idea where we are going to?’ said Bingo.
    ‘None whatever,’ said Frodo, ‘ — if you mean, where we are going
    to land finally. With such a captain it would be quite impossible
    to guess that. But we all know where we are making for first.’
    ‘What we don’t know,’ put in Drogo, ‘is how long it is going to
    take us on foot. Do you? You have usually taken a pony.’
    ‘That is not much faster, though it is less tiring. Let me see — I
    have never done the journey in a hurry before, and have usually
    taken five and a half weeks (with plenty of rests). Actually I have
    always had some adventure, milder or less so, every time I have
    taken the road to Rivendell.’
    ‘Very well,’ said Frodo, ‘let’s put a bit of the way behind us
    tonight. It is jolly under the stars, and cool.’

    ‘Better turn in soon and make an early start,’said Odo (who was
    fond of bed). ‘We shall do more tomorrow if we begin fresh.’

    ‘I back councillor Frodo,’ said Bingo. So they started, shoulder ing packs, and gripping long sticks. They went very quietly over fields and along hedgerows and the fringes of small coppices until night fell, and in their dark [?green) cloaks they were quite invisible without any rings. And of course being Hobbits they could not be heard — not even by Hobbits.

  34. sergej:

    At last Hobbiton was far behind, and the lights in the windows of the last farmhouse were twinkling on a hilltop a long way away. Bingo turned and waved a hand in farewell.
    At the bottom of a slight hill they struck the main road East -
    rolling away pale grey into the darkness, between high hedges and
    dark wind-stirred trees. Now they marched along two by two;
    talking a little., occasionally humming, often tramping in time for a
    mile or so without saying anything. The stars swung overhead,
    and the night got late.
    Odo gave a big yawn and slowed down. ‘I am so sleepy,’ he said,
    ‘that I shall fall down on the road. What about a place for the
    night?’

    Here the original opening draft ends. Notably, the hobbits are setting
    out expressly for Rivendell, and Bingo has been there several times
    before; cf. the note given on p. 42: ‘Bilbo… settles down in Rivendell.
    Hence Bingo’s frequent absences from home.’ But there is no indication,
    nor has there been any, why they should be in any particular hurry.
    It is clear that when the hobbits struck the East Road they took to it
    and walked eastward along it. At this stage there is no suggestion of a side
    road to Buckland, nor indeed that Buckland played any part in their
    plans.
    A revised beginning followed. Drogo Took was dropped, leaving Odo
    and Frodo as Bingo’s companions (Frodo now in all probability a Took).
    The passage concerning Rivendell has gone, and instead the plan to go
    first ‘to pick up Marmaduke’ appears. The description of the walk from
    Hobbiton is now much fuller, and largely reaches the form in the
    typescript text (p. 50); it is interesting to observe here the point of
    emergence of the road to Buckland:

    After a rest on a bank under some thinly clad birches they went
    on again, until they struck a narrow road. It went rolling away,
    pale grey in the dark, up and down — but all the time gently
    climbing southward. It was the road to Buckland, climbing away
    from the main East Road in the Water Valley, and winding away
    past the skirts of the Green Hills towards the south-east corner of
    the Shire, the Wood-end as the Hobbits called it. They marched
    along it, until it plunged between high hedges and dark trees
    rustling their dry leaves gently in the night airs.

    Comparison of this with the description of the East Road in the first
    draft (‘rolling away pale grey into the darkness, between high hedges and
    dark wind-stirred trees’) shows that the one was derived from the other.
    Perhaps as a result, the crossing of the East Road is omitted; it is merely
    said that the Buckland road diverged from it (contrast FR p. 80).

  35. sergej:

    After Odo’s words (typescript text p. 50) ‘Or are you fellows going to
    sleep on your legs?’ there follows:

    The Road goes ever on and on
    down from the Door where it began:
    before us far the Road has gone,
    and we come after it, who can;
    pursuing it with weary feet,
    until it joins some larger way,
    where many paths and errands meet,
    and whither then? — we cannot say.

    There is no indication, in the manuscript as written, who spoke the verse
    (for which there is also a good deal of rough working); in the typescript text
    (pp. 52 — 3) it is given to Frodo and displaced to a later point in the story.
    The second draft then jumps to the following day, and takes up in the
    middle of a sentence:

    … on the flat among tall trees growing in scattered fashion in the
    grasslands, when Frodo said: ‘I can hear a horse coming along the
    road behind! ‘
    They looked back, but the windings of the road hid the traveller.
    ‘I think we had better get out of sight,’ said Bingo; ‘or you
    fellows at any rate. Of course it doesn’t matter very much, but I
    would rather not be met by anyone we know.’
    They [written above at the same time: Odo & F.] ran quickly to
    the left down into a little hollow beside the road, and lay flat.
    Bingo slipped on his ring and sat down a few yards from the track.
    The sound of hoofs drew nearer. Round a turn came a white
    horse, and on it sat a bundle — or that is what it looked like: a small
    man wrapped entirely in a great cloak and hood so that only his
    eyes peered out, and his boots in the stirrups below.
    The horse stopped when it came level with Bingo. The figure
    uncovered its nose and sniffed; and then sat silent as if listening.
    Suddenly a laugh came from inside the hood.
    ‘Bingo my boy!’ said Gandalf, throwing aside his wrappings.

    ‘You and your lads are somewhere about. Come along now and
    show up, I want a word with you! ‘ He turned his horse and rode
    straight to the hollow where Odo and Frodo lay. ‘Hullo! hullo! ‘ he
    said. ‘Tired already? Aren’t you going any further today?’
    At that moment Bingo reappeared again. ‘Well I’m blest,’ said
    he. ‘What are you doing along this way, Gandalf? I thought you
    had gone back with the elves and dwarves. And how did you know
    where we were?’

  36. sergej:

    ‘Easy,’ said Gandalf. ‘No magic. I saw you from the top of the
    hill, and knew how far ahead you were. As soon as I turned the
    corner and saw the straight piece in front was empty I knew you
    had turned aside somewhere about here. And you have made a
    track in the long grass that I can see, at any rate when I am looking
    for it.’

    Here this draft stops, at the foot of a page, and if my father continued
    beyond this point the manuscript is lost; but I think it far more likely that
    he abandoned it because he abandoned the idea that the rider was
    Gandalf as soon as written. It is most curious to see how directly the
    description of Gandalf led into that of the Black Rider — and that the
    original sniff was Gandalf’s! In fact the conversion of the one to the
    other was first carried out by pencilled changes on the draft text, thus:

    Round a turn came a white [> black] horse, and on it sat a bundle — or
    that is what it looked like: a small [> short] man wrapped entirely in a
    great [added: black) cloak and hood so that only his eyes peered out [>
    so that his face was entirely shadowed]…

    If the description of Gandalf in the draft is compared with that of the
    Black Rider in the typescript text (p. 54) it will be seen that with further
    refinement the one still remains very closely based on the other. The new
    turn in the story was indeed ‘unpremeditated’ (p.44).
    Further rough drafting begins again with the workings for the song
    Upon the hearth the fire is red and continues through the second
    appearance of the Black Rider and the coming of the Elves to the end of
    the chapter. This material was followed very closely indeed in the
    typescript text and need not be further considered (one or two minor
    points of interest in the development of the narrative are mentioned in
    the Notes). There is however a separate section in manuscript which was
    not taken up into the typescript, and this very interesting passage will be
    given separately (see p. 73).
    I give here the typescript text — which became an extremely complex
    and now very battered document. It is clear that as soon as, or before, he
    had finished it my father began revising it, in some cases retyping pages
    (the rejected pages being retained), and also writing in many other
    changes here and there, most of these being very minor alterations of

    wording.(1) In the text that follows I take up all these revisions silently, but
    some earlier readings of interest are detailed in the Notes at the end of it
    (pp. 65 ff.).

  37. sergej:

    II.

    Three’s Company and Four’s More.(2)

    Odo Took was sitting on a gate whistling softly. His cousin Frodo
    was lying on the ground beside a pile of packs and haversacks,
    looking up at the stars, and sniffing the cool air of the autumn
    twilight.
    ‘I hope Bingo has not got locked up in the cupboard, or
    something,’ said Odo. ‘He’s late: it’s after six.’
    ‘There’s no need to worry,’ said Frodo. ‘He’ll turn up when he
    thinks fit. He may have thought of some last irresistible joke, or
    something: he’s very Brandybucksome. But he’ll come all right;
    quite reliable in the long run is Uncle Bingo.’
    There was a chuckle behind him. ‘I’m glad to hear it,’ said
    Bingo suddenly becoming visible; ‘for this is going to be a very
    Long Run. Well, you fellows, are you quite ready to depart?’
    ‘It’s not fair sneaking up with that ring on,’ said Odo. ‘One day
    you will hear what I think of you, and you won’t be so glad.’
    ‘I know already,’ said Bingo laughing, ‘and yet I remain quite
    cheerful. Where’s my pack and stick? ‘
    ‘Here you are! ‘ said Frodo jumping up. ‘This is your little lot:
    pack, bag, cloak, stick.’
    ‘I’m sure you have given me all the heaviest stuff,’ puffed Bingo,
    struggling into the straps. He was a bit on the stout side.
    ‘Now then!’ said Odo. ‘Don’t start being Bolger-like. There’s
    nothing there, except what you told us to pack. You’ll feel the
    weight less, when you have walked off a bit of your own.’
    ‘Be kind to a poor ruined hobbit! ‘ laughed Bingo. ‘I shall be thin
    as a willow-wand, I’m sure, before a week is out. But now what
    about it? Let’s have a council! What shall we do first?’
    ‘I thought that was settled,’ said Odo. ‘Surely we have got to
    pick up Marmaduke first of all?’
    ’0 yes! I didn’t mean that,’ said Bingo. ‘I meant: what about
    this evening? Shall we walk a little or a lot? All night or not at all?’
    ‘We’d better find some snug corner in a haystack, or some-
    where, and turn in soon,’ said Odo, ‘We shall do more tomorrow,
    if we start fresh.’
    ‘Let’s put a bit of the road behind us to-night,’ said Frodo. ‘I

    want to get away from Hobbiton. Beside it’s jolly under the stars,
    and cool.’

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